Oral Cancer – Site,Risk Factors,Symptoms,
Cancer is a curse to humans. There are many more types of cancer according to their location. We name cancer based on where it actually occurs. Like, Cancer occurs inside the mouth, we call it mouth cancer or oral cancer. Oral cancer can be a deadly disease for mouth. Despite all the advances in medical science, it is a matter of luck to find the right cause and symptoms of the disease or to cure it quickly. Oral cancer can be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated in its very early stages. So it’s very important to know about oral cancer in details.
Let’s discuss about the site, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of oral cancer.
Firstly we need to know what is oral cancer?
Oral cancer is a cancer of mouth and upper throat. We can easily explain oral cancer as a malignant neoplasia which arises on the oral cavity. Also called as a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), because in the dental area, most of the cancers are histologically originated in the squamous cells of the mouth, tongue or lips. This may includes head and neck cancers also. Oral cancer kills one person every hour. Oral cancers are 2X common in men then women.
Websites of dental cancer cells.
One of the most common sites for cancer cells in the mouth are-.
- Gum tissues.
- The inner cellular lining of the cheeks.
- The roof as well as floor of the mouth (Under the tongue).
Any kind of sorts of oral abnormalities are generally initial discovered by the dental expert. For this reason, it’s extremely crucial to examine the mouth two times a year.
Risk variables of oral cancer.
Yearly, almost/more than 50,000 individuals in America are diagnosed with oral cancer, most of them more than the age of 40. Youngsters additionally deal with oral cancer mostly by Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
Studies have revealed that guys are practically twice as likely to be affected by the oral cancer cells as ladies. However, there are multiple factors behind this. The primary reason is that guys take in even more quantity of tobacco, alcohol which leads to more possibilities of cancer than lady do.
Among all one of the significant threat factor of oral cancer is tobacco usage. Regarding 80 percent of dental cancer cells people use tobacco. It can causes cancer cells of the mouth, throat, mind and also internal surface area of the lips.
4. Alcohol Intake.
This is among one of the most damaging factor of dental cancer cells triggered by alcohol usage. So if you want to avoid mouth cancer cells, stop drinking alcohol. It came to be extra unsafe when it incorporated with smoking.
5. Cigarette smoking.
Individuals that smoke cigarettes, cigars or pipelines are most likely to establish oral cancer. People with this kind have much more percent opportunity of developing cancer cells of the cheeks, gums, and lips.
6. Betel Nut Chewing
Its a one kind of smokeless tobacco mostly made in Asian country. Its a mixture of tobacco also added some spices which can be chew and place in the mouth usually between the gum and cheek. Because of this It can easily causes gum and Check cancer.
7. Dental Factors
Poor oral hygiene or poor oral status like broken tooth or calculusfull mouth or continue irritation on the lining area of the mouth due to ill fitting denture or untreated continue traumatic bite or continue use of alcohol containing mouthwash which can penetrate on oral tissue and can cause oral cancer. Study shows that plup cleaning material has a carcinogenic property. Its can be responsible for tongue cancer.
8. Human papilloma virus (HPV)-
Human papillomavirus infection is a common risk factor for oral cancer. Medicines that are use to treat certain immune disorders can cause oral cancer.
9. Sun Exposure-
If the sun shines on the face for a long time it can cause oral cancer.
10. Family History-
If someone in the family has a previous history of this cancer it can be transfer to another family person genetically.
11. Radiation Treatment-
Due to radiation therapy can be a risk factor for second primary tumour.
13. Weak immunity.
Symptoms of Oral Cancer/ Pre-Cancerous Condition-
- Swelling/ thickening, abnormal nodules or lumps, rough spots or crusty areas on the lips, gums or other areas inside the mouth.
- lip or mouth sores that bleed easily and don’t heal within two weeks.
- Development of velvety white, red speckled (white/red) patches in the mouth.
- Unexplained bleeding from the mouth.
- Numbness, pain or tenderness in any area of the mouth, face or neck.
- Soreness or feeling something being stuck in the back of the throat.
- Difficulty in chewing, swallowing, speaking or moving the jaw or tongue.
- Numbness in the lower lip, mouth, throat or cheeks.
- Harshness, sore of throat or change of voice.
- Tooth loss.
- Unplanned weight loss.
- Pain in the ear/ Earache.
- Sudden changes in the tooth condition.
- Chronic bad breath.
- Persistent or tenderness when swelling.
Although mouth sores and earaches can be caused by other diseases, the above symptoms should be seen together should be diagnosed by a registered doctor.
Diagnosis Of Oral Cancer
Firstly patients will undergo a physical exam, which means a thorough examination of the lymph nodes in the roof and/or floor of the mouth, back of the tongue, cheeks, and neck. Its called oral screening. After that ENT specialists may perform further tests if needed and when the doctor is unable to find the cause of the symptoms then go for following tests-
A tissue biopsy may be done to findout abnormal tissue growth and/or an oral tumor.
X-rays can help to determine if the tumor has spread to the jaw, chest or lungs.
3. CT scan-
A CT scan can reveal tumor growth in the face, throat, lungs, neck, or elsewhere in the body.
4. PET(Positron emission tomography) scan
PET scan helps to determine if cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
5. MRI scan
MRI scan gives a more accurate picture of the head and neck and helps to determine the stage of the cancer.
Lastly endoscopy helps to examine the internal throat, nasal passages, sinuses, windpipe and trachea.
Staging Of Oral Cancer-
Cancer cell only in the epithelium (outer most layer) of the oral cavity or throat.
Tumor is 2cm or less in diameter not involving surrounding structures.
Tumor is 2-4cm in diameter and still not involved with surrounding structures.
- Tumor is larger more then 4cm but not involving nearby surrounding structures or lymph nodes.
- Tumor is larger more then 4cm or can be any size and has cancer cells and spread to one lymph node on the same side of the head.
- Tumor has started to grow involving nearby structures but not spread to distant sites or lymph nodes or spread to only one lymph nodes on same side.
- Tumor has grow involving with deeper structures and also tissue have been involved by the cancer cell and/or spread to multiple lymph nodes which is atleast 6cm in large.
3. Cancer has been metastasised to other site like lungs.
Staging Of Oral Cancer According To TNM System-
Its a universal system to classify extend of spread of oral cancer accurately. Knowing the stage of oral cancer through this system can help to plan a suitable treatment option for a patient.
TNM stands for-
T – Primary tumor (site)
N– Regional lymph node
Tx- Primary tumor can not be assessed.
T0– No evidence of primary tumor.
Tis– Carcinoma in situ.
T1– Tumor size <2cm in greatest dimension.
T2– Tumor size 2-4cm in greatest dimension.
T3– Tumor size >4cm in greatest dimension.
T4a– Slight to moderately advanced local disease. Tumor involved adjacent structures (cortical bones, muscles of tongue, maxillary sinus and skin of face)
T4b– Very advanced condition. Tumor involved with masticator space, pterygoid plate and skull bone.
N– Lymph Node
NX– Regional lymph node can not be assessed.
N0– No regional lymph node metastasis.
N1– Metastasis in a simple ipsilateral lymph node 3cm or less in greatest dimension.
N2a– Metastasis in a simple ipsilateral lymph node, >3cm and 6cm or less in greatest dimension.
N2b– Metastasis in a multiple lymph nodes more than 6cm in a greatest dimension.
N2c– Metastasis in bilateral or contralateral lymph nodes more than 6cm in a greatest dimension.
N3– Metastasis in any lymph nodes more than 6cm in a greatest dimension.
M0– There is no evidence of distant metastasis.
M1– There is presence of evidence of distant metastasis.
Treatment Procedures Of Oral Cancer
Treatment of oral cancer depends on its type, location and stage. It often doesn’t take long to catch it in the early stages. Although in that case the age of the patient is also a big factor. According to American National Cancer Institute (National Cancer Institute)-about 60 percent of oral cancer patients survive for five years or more. The sooner a cancer diagnosis is done, the more likely the patient will survive after treatment. Even in stage-1 and stage-II patients this rate can be as high as (70–90) percent. From these statistics, we can surely understand how important it is to detect cancer on time and treat it. Lets discuss about treatment procedures-
The initial stage of treatment is usually surgical removal of tumor or carcinogenic lymph nodes. In addition, tissues around the mouth and throat are also taken many times.
B. Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy is another treatment option. This therapy can be done 2 days or 5 days a week for 2 to 8 weeks. Advanced stage cancer may require chemotherapy along with radiation therapy.
Some side effects of radiation therapy are-
1) Sore mouth
2) Dry mouth
3) Tooth decay
4) Bleeding from gums
5) Nausea and vomiting
6) Various skin and mouth infections
8) Inability to taste and smell etc
Chemotherapy can be another option of oral cancer treatment. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells in the body. The medicine can be taken orally or given intravenously. The whole process depends on the patient’s physical condition.
How to reduce risk of oral cancer or how to prevent it –
- Primary prevention-
- See your dental doctor for regular check-ups. A dentist can evaluate your mouth completely for irregularities and also are trained in discovering signs of oral cancer cells.
- Check your mouth consistently for any uncommon sores as well as lesions.
- Cigarette control- If tobacco routines are removed from the neighborhood, a lot of decrease of dental cancer occurrence can be attained by
– Behavior alteration
– Health and wellness education and learning
- Full control on alcohol usage.
- Take proper care of your teeth and also mouth. Cleaning should be done twice a day as well as flossing once a day.
- Improve diet regimen- vegetables and fruits.
- Control of Venereal diseases (STDs).
- Correct treatment of conditions like lichen planus, candidiasis.
- Modification or unwell fitting dentures as well as other problems that triggers chronic inflammation.
- Defense from extreme UV-exposure. Shield your skin with sun block including your lips with SPF lip balm and prevent getting sunlight burnt.
- Don’t postpone in inquiring from a dental professional or physician if you notice any uncommon symptoms or sores on your lips or around your mouth.
- Second prevention-.
- Oral cancer cells are easily available for examination enabling very early detection.
- If detected early which is call pre-cancerous sore should be dealt with immediately.
- The pre-cancerous lesions can be spotted upto 15 years, prior to ending up being intrusive cancer.
- Routine oral cancer cells examinations after age 40.
- Incase of breakthrough dental cancer cells, undergo appropriate treatment protocol from a dental cosmetic surgeon or physician.
Ending the discussion right here by desiring every people good health. Keep well, remain healthy and balanced.